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TECHINOLOGY OF AIR POLLUTION CONTINUOUS MONITORING IN JAPAN

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著者名: 財団法人 地球環境センター
分類: 環境関連冊子(行政・法人・NPO・NGO等発行) > 独立行政法人・財団法人・社団法人発行


種類: 書籍
対象年齢: 一般向け
キーワード: 環境全般/公害・都市環境・衛生/自然環境
概要:
日本の環境モニタリング技術の中で、途上国が導入し易い技術をまとめたもの。大気モニタリングに関する自動計測器の原理や構成等のどの技術情報を紹介。


登録日: 2006/4/28
機関名: 財団法人 地球環境センター
住所: 〒538-0036 大阪市鶴見区緑地公園2-110
電話番号: 06-6915-4121
FAX: 06-6915-0181
ホームページ: http://www.gec.jp/CTT_DATA/index_amon.html

目次

Introduction 1
The structure of this report and its use 2
Chapter 1 Outline about air pollution continuous monitoring 5
1.History of measures for air pollution and continuous monitoring 5
2.The purpose of continuos monitoring 6
2.1 Continuous monitoring of ambient air quality 6
2.1.1 The purpose of general air pollution monitoring stations 6
2.1.2 The purpose of roadside air pollution monitoring stations 6
2.2 Continuous monitoring of stationary source 7
Chapter 2 Plan of air pollution continuous monitoring 9
1.Plan of general air pollution monitoring stations and roadside air
pollution monitoring stations 9
1.1 Basic ideas behind the placement of monitoring stations 9
1.1.1 General air pollution monitoring station 9
1.1.2 Roadside air pollution monitoring station 12
1.2 Notes for determining the location of a monitoring station 12
1.2.1 General air pollution monitoring station 12
1.2.2 Roadside air pollution monitoring station 13
1.3 Notes for measuring and monitoring 14
1.3.1 General air pollution monitoring station 14
1.3.2 Roadside air pollution monitoring station 14
1.4 Supplementary facilities installed in the monitoring station 15
2.Plan of monitoring station for stationary source 16
2.1 Significance of continuous monitoring of stationary source 16
2.2 Notes on measurement and monitoring 17
3.The telemeter system 17
Chapter 3 Examples of air pollution continuous monitoring conducted by
local governments in Japan 21
1.The system developed by Osaka Prefectural Government 21
1.1 An overview of air pollution continuos monitoring and
its purpose in Osaka Prefectural Government 21
1.2 General air pollution monitoring stations and roadside air
pollution monitoring stations in Osaka Prefecture 24
1.3 Stationary source monitoring stations 27
1.3.1 Purpose 27
1.3.2 Criteria for establishing monitoring stations 29
1.3.3 Overview of the system 29
1.4 Mobile monitoring vehicles 31
2.The system developed by Osaka City Government 33
2.1 An overview of air pollution continuous monitoring and
its purpose in Osaka City Government 33
2.1.1 Air pollution continuous monitoring system in Osaka City Government 33
2.1.2 A continuous monitoring system for the stationary sources
of air pollution 37
2.2 General air pollution monitoring stations and roadside
air pollution monitoring stations in Osaka City 39
2.2.1 General air pollution monitoring station 39
2.2.2 Roadside air pollution monitoring station 41
2.3 Stationary source monitoring station 42
2.3.1 Establishing criteria for the system 42
2.3.2 Current criteria for the system 42
2.3.3 Ordinary monitoring and the factory self-management system 43
2.4 Mobile monitoring stations and simple measurement by grid divisions 44
2.4.1 Mobile monitoring stations 44
2.4.2 Simple measurement by grid division 44
3.Emergency measures 45
3.1 Osaka prefectural Government 45
3.1.1 Outline 45
3.1.2 Emergency measures for photo-chemical smog 45
3.2 Osaka City Government 50
Chapter 4 An overview of the principles of automatic monitoring devices used
in air pollution continuous monitoring 51
1.Measuring instruments for ambient air 51
1.1 Sulfur dioxide(SO2) 51
1.2 Nitrogen oxide(NOx) 54
1.3 Suspend particulate matter(SPM) 58
1.4 Oxidants(Ox),Ozone(O3) 60
1.5 Carbon monoxide(CO) 63
1.6 Hydrocarbons(HC) 65
1.7 Ammonia(NH3) 68
1.8 Hydrogen sulfide(H2S) 69
1.9 Acid rain 71
1.10 Hydrogen fluoride(HF) 72
1.11 Wind vane & anemometer 73
1.12 Thermometer 75
1.13 Hygrometer 76
1.14 Pryheliometer 77
1.15 Rain gauge 78
1.16 Ultraviolet dosimeter 79
1.17 Vehicle detector 80
2.Measuring instruments for stationary source 81
2.1 Sulfur oxide(SOx) 81
2.2 Nitrogen oxide(NOx) 84
2.3 Oxygen(O2) 87
2.4 Carbon monoxide(CO) 92
2.5 Hydrocarbons(HC) 94
2.6 Hydrogen chloride(HCI) 95
2.7 Ammonia(NH3) 97
2.8 Flue gas flow meter 100
Chapter 5 Examples of the automatic monitoring devices used in air pollution
continuous monitoring 101
1.Examples of measuring instruments for air pollution monitoring station
(including roadside air pollution monitoring station) 101
1.1 Sulfur dioxide(SO2) 101
1.2 Nitrogen oxide(NOx) 104
1.3 Suspend particulate matter(SPM) 107
1.4 Oxidants(Ox),Ozone(O3) 109
1.5 Carbon monoxide(CO) 112
1.6 Hydrocarbons(HC) 114
1.7 Ammonia(NH3) 116
1.8 Acid rain 117
1.9 Hydrogen fluoride(HF) 120
1.10 Anemometer 121
1.11 Anemoscope 124
1.12 Wind vane & anemometer 125
1.13 Thermometer 126
1.14 Hygrometer 128
1.15 Pryheliometer 131
1.16 Rain gauge 132
1.17 Ultraviolet dositer 133
1.18 Vehicle detector 134
1.19 Others 135
2.Examples of measuring instruments for monitoring station
for stationary source 142
2.1 Sulfur oxide(SOx) 142
2.2 Nitrogen oxide(NOx) 143
2.3 Oxygen(O2) 144
2.4 Carbon monoxide(CO) 145
2.5 Ammonia(NH3) 146
2.6 Hydrogen chloride(HCI) 148
2.7 Multi-components gas analyzer for flue gas 149
2.8 Flue gas flow meter 152
Chapter 6 Examples of simple measurement 153
1.Outline of simple measurement 153
2.Gas detector tube system 154
2.1 Principle 154
2.2 Adaptation 154
2.3 Method 154
3.The Triethanolamine(TEA)method 161
3.1 Principle 161
3.2 Measurement method 161
3.3 Notes for measurement 162
4.PTIO method 168
4.1 General information 169
4.2 Preparation information 170
4.2.1 Preparing the reagents 170
4.2.2 Preparing the coated collection filter 170
4.3 Analytical method 170
4.3.1 Preparing the reagents 170
4.3.2 Analytical operation 171
4.3.3 Calculation of concentration 172
5.The method of measuring SO2 by lead peroxide candles 172
5.1 Reagent 173
5.2 Instruments 173
5.3 Placement of the PbO2 cylinder 173
5.4 Quantification 174
Chapter 7 Notes on the maintenance and management of automatic
monitoring instruments 177
1.Items related to air pollution monitoring stations and roadside
air pollution monitoring stations 177
1.1 General matters 177
1.1.1 Sample collection tube 177
1.1.2 Flow meter 179
1.1.3 Recorder 180
1.1.4 Water used for the monitoring instruments 182
1.2 Specific matters to individual instruments 183
1.2.1 Automatic SO2 analyzer(Conductimetric method) 183
1.2.2 Automatic SO2 analyzer(Ultraviolet fluorescence method) 185
1.2.3 Automatic NOx analyzer(Saltzman reagent method) 186
1.2.4 Automatic NOx analyzer(Chemiluminescence method) 187
1.2.5 Automatic SPM analyzer 189
1.2.6 Automatic Ox analyzer(Absorptiometry method) 190
1.2.7 Automatic Ox analyzer(Ultraviolet absorption method) 194
1.2.8 Automatic CO analyzer 196
1.2.9 Automatic HC analyzer 197
1.2.10 Anemoscope and anemometer 197
1.2.11 Temperature/humidity 198
1.2.12 Amount of solar radiation 198
2.Items related to monitoring stations for stationary source 199
2.1 General requirements 200
2.1.1 Sampling system 200
2.1.2 Pre-treatment system 200
2.1.3 Recording system 202
2.1.4 Adjustment of calibration gas 202
2.2 Matters specific to individual instrument 204
2.2.1 Automatic SO2 analyzer 204
2.2.2 Automatic NOx analyzer 207
2.2.3 Automatic analyzer for CO 208
2.2.4 Automatic analyzer for O2 209
2.2.5 Automatic analyzer for HCI 210
Chapter 8 Summarizing and utilizing data 213
1.Confirmation of monitored data 213
1.1 Data for monitoring stations of atmospheric air 213
1.2 Stationary source data in Osaka Prefectural Government 218
1.3 Stationary source data in Osaka City Government 219
2.Managing measurement value 220
2.1 Storing measurement value 220
2.2 Using data files 221
3.Utilization of measurement values 222
3.1 Utilization of measurement values 222
3.2 Osaka City Government 222

1 List of information source organizations/companies in relation to
automatic monitoring instruments 225
2 Environmental quality standards for air pollution in Japan 229
3 WHO air quality guidelines 231

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